Legalizing a drug like marijuana will not stop young people from using
it, it will increase consumption.
Kevin Page, the Parliamentary budget officer, estimates 600,000 new
users will start using marijuana if it becomes legal in Canada.
Marijuana is extremely dangerous for user aged 14-25 since the teenage
brain is developing.
I love my family; we don't use drugs, I love my city, Charlottetown, I
don't want the citizens using drugs.
Same goes for my province and great country Canada.
[continues 140 words]
UPEI engineering students have designed and developed a THC
A group of UPEI engineering students has come up with a way to help
detect levels of marijuana in drivers.
The students designed and developed a prototype, handheld THC
But before they consider taking the product or a technological aspect
to market, they have some unfinished business to take care of.
"We're going to concentrate on graduating first. And then after that,
we'll see what happens," said Bryce Stewart of Wood Islands.
[continues 684 words]
There's a dirty little secret about legalized marijuana, one that
could become an issue in neighbourhoods across the country.
Well, maybe it would be better to describe it as a stinky little
secret, but one that's likely to become very familiar - and maybe too
Weed, both smoked and unsmoked, is more pungent than it once was. It's
gone through decades of horticultural experimentation to strengthen
its kick. And there's likely to be a lot more of that pungent to go
around once smoking a joint isn't a criminal offence anymore.
[continues 555 words]
The recent announcement by the provincial government that marijuana
use will be restricted to private residences to help limit its impact
on communities and public health ignores the rights of children to
protection from second-hand smoke in their homes.
Marijuana smoke is a recognized carcinogen and as with exposure to
tobacco smoke, can cause serious health risks for those involved.
Nearly one-third of deaths from tobacco second-hand smoke exposure are
children, many of whom are infants.
The federal Liberal Trudeau government has been exposed as to why
marijuana is being legalized, so called.
The feds and provinces have been busy "cutting up the cash" to pay for
the new healthcare and policing expenses which will be generated by
Why generate the need for new expenses by the indiscriminate use of
marijuana? Governments have gone mad.
Garth E. Staples, Charlottetown
Opposition Tories press for details on rollout of government-run
The province appears to be keeping details of its business plans for
selling legal pot in P.E.I. close to its chest for the time being,
promising more specifics in the coming months. The Opposition
Progressive Conservatives pressed for more details on government's
plans, announced last week, to sell legal cannabis in government-run,
standalone stores operated by the P.E.I. Liquor Control Commission.
On Friday, Finance critic Darlene Compton questioned Finance Minister
Allen Roach on what the start-up costs would be for these stores. She
also wanted to know how many stores will open in P.E.I. and what the
projected revenues will be for the province?
[continues 490 words]
It's funny how quickly a criminal enterprise can turn into a
legitimate business opportunity. As a federal Conservative politician,
even as late as 2015, Julian Fantino was opposed to the legalization
In 2004, he even compared weed to murder in an interview with the
Toronto Sun, saying, "I guess we can legalize murder too and then we
won't have a murder case. We can't go that way."
Now, he's partnered with former RCMP deputy commissioner Raf Souccar
to open a medical marijuana business, Aleafia Total Health Network.
[continues 407 words]
The P.E.I. Liquor Control Commission is a good choice for managing
Prince Edward Island's new marijuana stores. The LCC is well equipped
for developing policy and providing oversight.
It is also good that the provincial government has decided its pot
sales will be conducted from different storefronts than its liquor
It just gets the right message out there: If it is not good for the
PEILCC to sell liquor and pot from the same premises, it's not good
for a consumer to mix liquor and pot.
[continues 148 words]
Trudeau still "working with provinces" on legal pot
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says he is still working with the
provinces when it comes to how legal marijuana administration costs
will be funded.
During a visit to P.E.I. Thursday, Trudeau said discussions are
ongoing on legal cannabis with the provinces after premiers were cool
to the idea of splitting the revenue of a proposed excise tax 50-50
"We continue to work with all provinces and territories and
municipalities to ensure we bring in a strong legalized framework
around cannabis in order to protect our kids, in order to keep the
criminal organizations and gangs from making the billions of dollars
in profits that they are," Trudeau told reporters in P.E.I. Thursday.
[continues 151 words]
I am writing in response to the upcoming legalization of marijuana
As a young adult who will experience the impact of this major
decision, I do not agree and I hope the government comes to the
realization that this will ruin lives.
Legalization of marijuana will result in easier access to the drug,
causing an increase in usage.
If you consider the underage drinking problem with alcohol, we will
have the same issues with underage marijuana usage.
This worries me specifically for minors, as studies have shown that
marijuana usage can affect brain development as well as causing death
in brain cells.
[continues 130 words]
Marijuana legalization opponents say long-term health and social costs
will be significant
Legalize and tax marijuana and the budget will balance itself.
Marijuana advocates from stoners to recreational users to the prime
minister have tried to convince us of this for years. But they're all
It makes some sense that a product so commonly used should be
regulated rather than criminalized, sending its newly enabled taxation
revenues to the public coffers. Unfortunately, recent federal
announcements and the examples of two American states tell us that a
fiscal boon from legal pot is nothing more than reefer madness.
[continues 522 words]
In 1969, the Trudeau government removed abortion from the Criminal
Code. This action has led to the deaths of over six million unborn
Canadians. In 2016, the present Trudeau government legalized the
killing (euthanasia) of the elderly, handicapped, depressed etc. and
gave individual Canadians the legal right to assisted suicide.
In 2018, this same government will legalize marijuana, totally
ignoring - among the other serious side effects - the research that
shows the deadly side effects this drug has on the mental and physical
health and development of young people. It is a proven fact the
continued use of marijuana leads to the use of hard drugs.
[continues 84 words]
I thought about writing something a number of months ago about being
against legal pot. The verbal abuse was crazy. I know anything I say
or do will not change anyone's mind. You are for legal pot or you are
I never dreamed about our government ever being drug dealers. I know
it makes sense for it to be legal - extra tax money, less people in
jail, new revenue streams for many. Over the last number of years I
have talked to a number of people who have been dealing with
addiction, and their families trying to help them get past this time
in their life. The common thread, however, talking with people dealing
with addiction, has been it all started with pot. This isn't from a
survey or study, it's from talking with the addict on the street.
[continues 57 words]
With regards to legalization of marijuana, a mind-altering substance,
I wonder if our MP's are stunned or stoned? Do these people not see
what this stuff is doing to people, families, court systems etc.?
There is a negative that comes out of almost everything associated
with this stuff. We have seen it with liquor in the past, now some
stoner in Ottawa wants easy access. If you doubt me on this, sit in a
courtroom and see how many cases are alcohol/ drug related. Ask any
police officers, doctor, judge, etc. what this is doing to people.
[continues 95 words]
The legalization of marijuana in Canada in July 2018 gives the federal
government an opportunity to bring communities - including Indigenous
ones - into this lucrative sector in a big way.
For example, Manitoba's Opaskwayak Cree Nation recently took a major
stake in a medical marijuana company. OCN purchased $3 million in
shares in National Access Cannabis, a privately-held company that
recently traded publicly for the first time.
Private investors in medical and recreational marijuana are watching
intently as the federal government unveils its plans for how pot will
be legally grown and sold in Canada.
[continues 448 words]
For a government that likes to tout its commitment to openness and
public engagement, the MacLauchlan Liberals' decision to forego public
meetings on legalizing cannabis is disappointing.
After all, it was the province that issued a call for opinions from
Islanders on how P.E.I. should adapt to federal legislation that will
make marijuana legal by July 2018.
"Have your say on cannabis legislation," the P.E.I. government website
proclaims. "Share your thoughts on what cannabis legislation should
look like for Prince Edward Island."
[continues 430 words]
UPSE supports public model for marijuana
The federal government is set to legalize marijuana in July 2018.
The P.E.I. government indicated that it will introduce legislation to
regulate the sale of the product in the spring. Recently, in Ontario
the government has chosen to distribute the sale of marijuana through
the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). The government and the
province's public sector union agree that having the LCBO regulate the
sale of cannabis is the best way to protect minors from purchasing the
product, and to ensure quality control and public safety.
[continues 316 words]
P.E.I. could see substantial economic impact through cannabis, says
Annie MacEachern wants to see P.E.I. become Canada's green
MacEachern, a communications consultant, says the province has the
opportunity to see a substantial economic impact through cannabis,
which is expected to become a multibillion dollar industry once it's
legalized across Canada next summer.
However, she said the province must first approach the issue with more
"I have a dream of Prince Edward Island becoming Canada's green
Island. I really think that growing cannabis here and allowing
cannabis tourism should be something that is highlighted on P.E.I.,"
MacEachern said during the second public discussion in Charlottetown
on the upcoming legislative changes.
[continues 568 words]
Liberals election platform vowed to bring in changes to both pot and
The federal Liberals are being castigated in some quarters over two
promises they made in the last election. And no, they are not being
hammered for breaking their vows. They're being pilloried for keeping
Well, pilloried might be too strong, but it is not for lack of trying
on behalf of the opposition, especially on the Liberal promise to have
some high-earners pay more taxes.
[continues 592 words]
Islander hosting public discussion on legal pot after government says
no to public meetings
A local woman is taking matters into her own hands to speak openly
about legalizing marijuana after her request to government for a
public meeting was denied.
Annie MacEachern says she asked provincial officials about its plans
for a public meeting after government released a public engagement
Islanders for their opinions on how the province should deal with
impaired driving, education, taxation, public health and regulatory
compliance in regards to legal cannabis.
[continues 414 words]
Two key hot-button issues to keep an eye on as Parliament returns this
When it comes to two of the big policy battles that loom as the fall
sitting of Parliament gets underway next week, prudence dictates that
a journalist keeps his or her powder dry.
In the debate over the government's proposed tax changes for people
with private corporations, as in the case of the Liberal plan to
legalize marijuana, what we have so far seen are just the opening
manoeuvres in a tug-of-war, the outcome of which in the court of
public opinion is far from decided.
[continues 664 words]
Ottawa will enjoy political payoff but all problems and logistics will
fall on provinces
The federal government is set on legalizing marijuana by summer 2018.
While they will enjoy the political payoff of appearing progressive,
all the problems and the logistics of legalizing pot will fall on the
shoulders of the provincial governments.
There are strong correlations between how a drug or an indulgence,
such as gambling, is made available to the public and the propensity
for individuals to indulge in it, and the negative health and social
outcomes associated with its use.
[continues 609 words]
Many involved in marijuana production are former civil servants,
federal and provincial politicians
In anticipation of the impending approval of the marijuana legislation
at the federal level, the province is now soliciting suggestions on
how best to implement the roll out procedure for the sale and
distribution of marijuana in this province.
How magnanimous is that gesture? The infrastructure is all in place,
monies have been loaned, properties have been acquired and several
government sponsored marijuana-growing operations are now in production.
[continues 431 words]
Ontario stands to set the tone for much of the rest of the country in
Canada is edging closer to the July 2018 target date for the
legalization of marijuana in a haze of political smoke.
With every new development, the gap between the political narrative
attending the initiative and its actual implementation is harder to
Take the federal government's talking points. They have greatly
evolved since Justin Trudeau was campaigning on university campuses in
the last election campaign. Logic has not always benefited from that
[continues 602 words]
While it's a good idea for the Prince Edward Island government to seek
public input on plans to legalize marijuana, the broad strokes of any
such legislation are very likely already written.
Last week, Premier Wade MacLauchlan said his government is seeking
Islanders' thoughts on what cannabis legislation should look like, an
engagement process that's long overdue since Ottawa tabled its
intentions in early April to legalize and regulate cannabis by July 1,
2018. Legalization is a federal decision but many of the rules and
regulations fall under provincial responsibility so the 10 provinces
are scrambling to deal with Ottawa's proposals. Most complain the
narrow window won't allow enough time to get proper public health,
pubic safety and public education guidelines in place.
[continues 394 words]
Legislation on details such as the age of consumption and distribution
likely coming in the spring, says Premier Wade MacLauchlan
P.E.I. will likely see legislation in the spring to get the province
ready for marijuana legalization, says Premier Wade
MacLauchlan recently returned from Council of the Federation meetings
in Edmonton where Ottawa's plan to legalize marijuana was discussed.
The most likely scenario for P.E.I. is that in the spring legislative
session the government will introduce legislation to deal with issues
like the age of consumption and distribution.
[continues 303 words]
MADD manager says legalization of marijuana is going to create
Police need more powers to battle impaired drivers, says Susan
The regional manager of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) says the
legalization of marijuana next year is going to create a whole new
challenge for law enforcement, and governments need to act soon.
"Our federal government needs to have legislative framework in place
and our provincial governments need to have legalization under the
Motor Vehicle Act that gives police the powers to lay those drug
impaired charges because a breathalyzer will not detect drugs,''
[continues 114 words]
Dr. Hendrik Visser, WCB medical adviser, says board seeing increasing
claims for coverage of medical cannabis
The medical adviser for the Workers Compensation Board of P.E.I. says
he believes the jury is still out on the effectiveness of medical marijuana.
Dr. Hendrik Visser is responsible for reviewing cases and providing
medical opinions on injury claims submitted to the WCB in Prince
During a presentation at the Workers Compensation Board (WCB) annual
meeting in Charlottetown Monday, Visser raised concern about the
increasing perception of cannabis as a "magic bullet" among physicians.
[continues 355 words]
Other than Mayor Clifford Lee, nobody addressed the cost associated
with new legislation
Islanders are familiar with the practice of oligopoly. We saw it in
spades with the PNP where it still continues under the secrecy of
government control. It is a state of limited competition in which a
market is shared by a small number of producers or sellers.
That is what happened with the PNP and that is what is happening with
the legalization and production of marijuana. The federal and
provincial governments are being criticized for creating an oligopoly
of major companies to grow marijuana, called licensed producers,
rather than a free market model which would open up the market to
those with an entrepreneurial spirit and an interest in producing the
[continues 662 words]
It appears that Dr. Hendrik Visser isn't your typical medical adviser
for the Workers' Compensation Board (WCB) of P.E.I. The position
usually goes to a doctor who has spent a number of years in private or
general practice, is getting close to retirement and assumes this less
strenuous role, while easing towards hanging up the
Apart from testifying at appeal hearings over disputed medical claims
or decisions, the adviser often keeps a low profile, and is rarely the
public face of the WCB.
[continues 419 words]
A pioneer in methadone now says methadone isn't working. People on
methadone are using other drugs. It is my opinion that under the
methadone program the province has become the drug dealer.
What is the province going to do when Justin Trudeau legalizes
marijuana? Intelligence isn't an attribute required for a politician.
People are seeing provinces sue tobacco companies for health care
costs. It won't take long for the provinces to sue companies selling
marijuana for health care costs. Methadone isn't working for
addictions to heavy drugs so how is the province going to pay for
addictions to marijuana? Justin Trudeau campaigned for Wade
MacLauchlan in the last provincial election, it is time both leaders
provide answers. I think both methadone and legalizing marijuana are a
John W.A. Curtis, Summerside
Charlottetown Mayor Clifford Lee appeared on CBC Compass on Friday to
detail financial problems that the city foresees in preparing for the
legalization of marijuana in 2018.The mayor did so but also took the
opportunity to become the first leader in Canada to explain why the
country will be making a huge mistake in legalizing the drug. He spoke
Congratulations Mayor Lee, your remarks were right on and should be
required listening for all federal and provincial politicians.
[continues 75 words]
Charlottetown Mayor Clifford Lee appeared on CBC Compass on Friday to
detail financial problems that his city foresees in preparing for the
legalization of marijuana in 2018.
The mayor did so but also took the opportunity to become the first
leader in Canada to explain why the country will be making a huge
mistake in legalizing the drug. He spoke the truth. Congratulations
Mayor Lee, your remarks were right on and should be required listening
for all federal and provincial politicians.
[continues 77 words]
In a recent Canadian Public Health Association discussion paper, "A
New Approach to Managing Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada,"
the point was made emphatically that our current approach to managing
risk is not working.
Here are some of its highlights:
- - A psychoactive substance is a chemical that changes brain function
and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness or
behaviour. Societies mitigate the health, social, and economic
consequences of the use and misuse of psychoactive substances such as
alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine,
tranquillizers and sleeping pills in a variety of ways with varying
degrees of success. Their effects on population health, however, are
often overshadowed by our fascination with the direct effects of
substance misuse on individuals [e.g. recent rise in the opioid death
rate due to adulteration of the drug supply with fentanyl and its
analogues]. Currently, western societies manage illegal psychoactive
substances largely through prohibition and criminalization and legal
drugs, like tobacco and alcohol, through regulation, restricted
availability and price control. The laws and systems initially
introduced to control these substances reflected the times ! and
prevalent issues of the day, but no longer reflect current scientific
knowledge concerning substance-related harms to individuals, families,
[continues 492 words]
There was a Letter to the Editor on the subject of legalizing
marijuana by a person who is in the business of treating youth who
have addiction issues. I agree with what the person is trying to relay
on this very important issue. The people who are in the business of
treating people with addictions know first hand the dangers of this
great idea that the government is bringing on and that is legalizing
I know that from my own experience with addiction, that the results
from the disease are so damaging and far reaching it boggles my mind
how government can justify the legalizing of a drug that caused so
much pain and suffering to addicts, family, friends and taxpayers.
[continues 119 words]
The Atlantic provinces have some blue-sky thinking to do, and not much
time to do it. Or more to the point: maybe they have some blue-smoke
thinking to be doing.
Last week, the federal government announced its plans to legalize
marijuana and, in so doing, threw the ball into the provincial court.
The provinces will have the final say on how weed will be marketed in
their regions, and also on things like the minimum age of purchasers.
And that's only the beginning. In fact, the provinces have more than a
little heavy lifting of their own to do in the 15 months before the
federal government's changed rules become law.
[continues 376 words]
Summerside couple opening store selling glass pieces for legal herbs
and medical marijuana
It's a cause close to Megan Patey and Tommy Biggar's hearts.
"I use it for my anxiety and PTSD. And since starting it, I've been
functioning a lot better," explained Patey.
The "it" is medicinal marijuana prescribed by a physician.
Biggar added, "It's incredible. It went from her nails being below the
skin, to being able to paint them, to having to cut them. It was
incredible to see how it helped her."
[continues 437 words]
As spring approaches, so does the federal government's promise to
introduce legislation to legalize marijuana. The Justin Trudeau
government announced back in April of last year that it would be
introducing new legislation next spring. So now that spring is almost
upon us, will that bill be coming soon?
Even when that bill arrives, it still needs to pass through the House
of Commons and the Senate.
That could take months, perhaps extend into early 2018, and even then,
the passing of the bill doesn't mean legal marijuana will be available
[continues 335 words]
Police stepping up patrols of Queen Elizabeth Park after incident
A Summerside family is reeling this week after one of its young
members was scratched by a needle while playing at Queen Elizabeth
Ethan Skevington, 11, was playing at the baseball complex Sunday with
a group of kids when the incident occurred. He went home and told his
family what happened and was taken to hospital.
On the way to the Prince County Hospital, the family stopped at the
ball fields with the intention of retrieving the needle in case
doctors needed it.
[continues 288 words]
MLAs hear methamphetamine has replaced prescription pills as biggest
drug issue in P.E.I.
It used to be prescription pills. Now if anyone asks RCMP Cpl. Andy
Cook what the biggest problem drug is in P.E.I. he says it's
methamphetamine. "We've gone from a downer to an upper as our biggest
problem here," he said. Cook joined RCMP Chief Supt. Joanne Crampton
for a presentation Friday to MLAs on the health and wellness
committee. During the presentation, Cook said he wasn't going to give
the credit to the police for the reduction in opiate use. "To me it's
the methadone program has made the biggest difference in regards to
the prescription opiate problem here," he said.
[continues 227 words]
It's back to school time and, for many parents, that means serious
discussions with their children about the many challenges that can
arise in the schoolyard and the classroom: bullying (both on and
offline), peer pressure, test anxieties and other stress, budding
sexuality, alcohol and drugs.
In the case of the latter category - drinking and drugs - many of us
might be tempted to tell our kids, "Just don't do it." But is that a
realistic approach? Let's face it; our children, and older teens in
particular, are prone to experimentation. Many of us did it and many
of them will do it. It's a fact of life.
[continues 384 words]
Time for Low-Level Street Dealers to Move Out As Government Prepares to Move In
A judge seemed bewildered Friday as she sentenced a Prince Edward
Island man for selling drugs out of his home.
Alfred William Gallant admitted to police he had been selling
marijuana out his house for years.
He said he did so to pay for his own usage - about seven or eight grams a day.
A report found his common-law spouse didn't view it as trafficking
because it was only marijuana and he only sold to people he knew.
[continues 364 words]
VANCOUVER - Apparent laziness caused by the main psychoactive
ingredient in marijuana persists even when the same amount of pot's
medicinal component is added, a new study suggests.
Lead author Mason Silveira, a PhD candidate in the University of
British Columbia's psychology department, said one part of the
research done on rats involved giving them THC, the intoxicating part
of cannabis, and having them choose between an easy or hard task to
earn sugary treats.
Silveira said that under normal circumstances, most rats preferred
the more difficult task to get more rewards but they switched to the
easier option when given THC.
[continues 384 words]
It's nearing harvest time for marijuana crops and the RCMP on P.E.I.
is calling on Islanders to help them find the illegal cash crops. The
national police force discourages members of the public from actually
investigating potential marijuana crops themselves, as the crops are
sometimes guarded or are protected with traps, but they want
concerned individuals to be on the lookout. "Often people will notice
unusual activity that can be an indicator that a grow operation is
nearby and officers are happy to take your information and
investigate," an RCMP release indicates.
[continues 168 words]
At the request of the Canadian Medical Association, I recently
completed a survey on the legalization of marijuana for recreational use.
Should marijuana be legalized for recreational use? It's hard to
argue against the responsible use of a plant product which has been
around for thousands of years and has been used as a social and
personal lubricant since time immemorial.
History teaches us that mankind has always sought respite from the
stresses of daily life through chemicals, and that much of the time
we have turned to psychoactive plants for relief.
[continues 506 words]
Sizing up the legal use of marijuana
I recently completed a C.M.A. survey on the legalization of cannabis
(marijuana) for recreational use. I would like to share my responses with you.
It's hard to argue against the responsible use of a plant product,
which has been around for thousands of years and has been used as a
social and personal lubricant since time immemorial. Mankind has
always sought respite from the stresses of daily life through
chemicals, and often we have turned to psychoactive plants. Relief
has included meditation, exercise, religion, collegial organizations,
psychotherapy, and illicit psychoactive drugs such as cocaine, heroin
and LSD, licit drugs such as alcohol and tobacco, as well as the
consumption of fine foods.
[continues 387 words]
Marijuana For Trauma wellness centre opens in Charlottetown
Veteran Jim Grant of Brackley credits a medical marijuana support
service with giving him a fresh, energetic new lease on life.
The 78-year-old Grant failed to access medical marijuana until he
turned to Marijuana For Trauma (MFT) in New Brunswick for assistance.
The company helped guide him through the hoops and hurdles to get on
the federal medical marijuana program.
The positive impact was immediate and major when Grant started using
the drug three months ago to help address the PTSD he links to "a
number of tragic events'' during his lengthy career with the Canadian
[continues 349 words]
Eureka! Last week I reported it was impossible to write this column.
I had asked readers to respond to how I believe 42,000 addicts on
methadone should be treated. Then my computer developed terminal
cancer and I thought all your responses had been lost. Fortunately,
the Geek Squad resurrected them.
From a Times Colonist reader, "Your suggestion that sending addicts
to northern Canada to chop wood caught my eye. I was impressed by
your research. The addicts I have known have no interest in getting
off methadone and improving themselves. I say, enough of this
nonsense. Why not have them chop wood? We all do some form of work to eat."
[continues 599 words]
Afghanistan veteran Dennis MacKenzie opens up about how losing six
friends overseas caused PTSD and how medical marijuana has helped him
His face was grief-stricken, streaming with tears, as he carried the
coffin of one of six friends killed by a roadside bomb in
Dennis MacKenzie's emotions gripped the country in April 2007 when he
was photographed taking part in a ramp ceremony in Kandahar for his
friends and fellow soldiers, killed by an improvised explosive device
in their LAV-III armoured vehicle.
[continues 820 words]
"Up in Smoke" (Cheech and Chong, 1978) may have floated the hazy
notion that smoking marijuana was harmless fun, but new research shows
that a woman's chance for delivering a healthy baby is actually what
goes up in smoke if she lets smoke into her brain and lungs while pregnant.
Researchers from the University of Arizona looked at 24 studies of
pregnancy and marijuana smoking:
They discovered that pregnant women who smoke cannabis were more
likely to be anemic and their babies more likely to end up in neonatal
intensive care with low birth weight.
[continues 158 words]